Biewer & Yorkie Health
On the links below you will find some of the best descriptions, clinical signs,
diagnosis and treatment of Liver Shunts, Tracheal Collapse, Luxating Patellas and
Legg-Calve Perthes disease that I have ever seen. Also included are frequently asked
questions. Click on the links to go there!
Click here for info on Liver Shunt information and Dr.
Karen Tobias  Leader in L:iver Shunt Research at The
University of Tennessee College of Veterinarian Medicine

Puppy < 12 mos
¨       Full physical exam

¨       Fecal +/- deworming

¨       DAPP vaccine at 8 weeks     

¨       DHPP vaccine at 12 and 16 wks

¨       Bordetella vaccine at 12 weeks +/-

¨       Rabies vaccine at 16 weeks

¨       Start heartworm prevention if < 6 months

¨       Heartworm test if > 6 months then start on heartworm

¨      Start flea/tick control

·         OHE/Neuter

·         Pre-anesthetic bloodwork and urinalysis

Adult  - 1 to 7 years
¨       Full physical exam yearly

Formulate appropriate vaccine schedule for life style

Discuss dental care

¨       Rabies vaccine every 3 years

¨       Bordetella vaccine yearly +/-

¨      Heartworm test and preventative

¨      Fecal +/- deworming yearly

¨      Continue heartworm, flea, tick and intestinal parasite

·         Full screening labwork at least every 2 years – CBC,
Chemistry, electrolytes, urinalysis

·        Vaccine titer instead of DHPP or *modified annual protocol

·        Dental cleaning as needed

·        Screening thoracic and abdominal radiographs

·        Screening electrocardiogram

Golden years > 7 years
¨       Full physical exam every 6 months

Monitor for weight changes

Discuss age related diet changes

Modify vaccine schedule appropriate for age and lifestyle

Discuss dental care

Discuss ongoing health problems

Discuss arthritis and pain management

¨       Rabies vaccine every 3 years

¨       Discuss vaccine schedule

¨       Bordetella vaccine yearly +/-

¨      Heartworm test and preventative

¨      Fecal +/- deworming yearly

¨      Continue heartworm, flea, tick and intestinal parasite


·         Full labwork yearly (CBC, chemistry, electrolytes,

·         Antibody titer instead of vaccine or *modified annual

·        Thoracic and abdominal radiographs yearly

·        Electrocardiogram yearly

·        Dental cleaning as needed

1. Complete blood count (CBC)

This is the most common blood test performed on pets and people. A CBC gives
information on hydration status, anemia, infection, the blood's clotting ability,
and the ability of the immune system to respond. This test is essential for pets with
fevers, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, pale gums, or loss of appetite. If your pet
needs surgery, a CBC can detect bleeding disorders or other unseen abnormalities.  
A checkmark in any box indicates a significant abnormal finding on your pet's
blood work.

2. Chemistry Tests

The chemistry panel surveys many of the organ systems of the body to make sure
they are working normally.

Liver (AST, ALT, Alk. Phos, T. Bilirubin, GGT, Cholesterol, Proteins)
This group of tests helps evaluate various functions and health of the liver.
Decreased liver function, inflammation, infection and neoplasia (abnormal growth
of cells) of the liver and gall bladder may be detected by one or all of these tests.

Kidney (BUN, Creatinine, Phosphorus, Amylase, Albumin, Globulin)
These tests monitor the function and health of the kidneys. They are the most
helpful and sensitive for detecting kidney disease when combined with a urinalysis.

Pancreas (Glucose, Amylase, Lipase, Triglyceride)
These tests are abnormal when there is something wrong with the pancreas or
carbohydrate metabolism (examples are diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis).

Muscle and Bone
Calcium and Phosphorus are helpful in determining the health of bone metabolism.

CPK and AST are abnormal with muscle damage, trauma, or inflammation

Electroloytes (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Magnesium, Calcium, Phosphorus).
These are important in monitoring the electrical, water balance, and cellular health
of the body. Deficiencies or excesses of these electrolytes are harmful to the
animal's physical and mental well-being.

3. Thyroid Function Tests

As the name implies, these test are useful in diagnosing malfunctions of the
thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone) is common in dogs;
whereas hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) is common in older cats.
Because there is no single thyroid test that can diagnose all thyroid diseases in
animals, a panel of several different thyroid tests are used to ensure proper

4. Urinalysis

This assesses the health and function of the urinary system. It is especially
important in older animals to help in early detection of kidney disease. While
some serum chemistries help evaluate kidney function (BUN, Creatinine, etc.),
much more information is obtained when a urinalysis is done at the same time.
The urine sample is tested for several chemical components (glucose, protein,
blood and more), as well as any cells (WBC, RBC, epithelial, etc.) and crystals.

o HCT (hematocrit) measures the percentage of red blood cells to detect anemia
and dehydration.

o Hb and MCHC (hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)
are the oxygen-carrying pigments of red blood cells.

o WBC (white blood cell count) measures the body's immune cells. Increases or
decreases indicate certain diseases or infections.

o GRANS and L/M (granulocytes and lymphocytes/monocytes) are specific types
of white blood cells.

o EOS (eosinophils) are a specific type of white blood cells that may Indicate
allergic or parasitic conditions.

o PLT (platelet count) measures cells that form blood clots.

o RETICS (reticulocytes) are immature red blood cells. High levels indicate
regenerative anemia.

o FIBR (fibrinogen) Is an important clotting factor. High levels may indicate a dog
is 30 to 40 days pregnant

Blood chemistries

These common blood serum tests evaluate organ function, electrolyte status,
hormone levels, and more. They are important in evaluating older pets, pets with
vomiting and diarrhea or toxin exposure, pets receiving long-term medications,
and health before anesthesia.

o ALB (albumin) Is a serum protein that helps evaluate hydration, hemorrhage,
and intestinal, liver, and kidney disease.

o ALKP (alkaline phosphatase) elevations may indicate liver damage, Cushing's
disease, and active bone growth in young pets. This test is especially significant in

o ALT (alanine aminotransferase) is a sensitive indicator of active liver damage but
doesn't indicate the cause.

o AMYL (amylase) elevations show pancreatitis or kidney disease.

o AST (aspartate aminotransferase) increases may indicate liver, heart, or skeletal
muscle damage.

o BUN (blood urea nitrogen) indicates kidney function. An increased blood level
is called azotemia and can be caused by kidney, liver, and heart disease, urethral
obstruction, shock, and dehydration.

o Ca (calcium) deviations can indicate a variety of diseases. Tumors,
hyperparathyroidism, kidney disease, and low albumin are just a few of the
conditions that alter serum calcium.

o CHOL (cholesterol) is used to supplement diagnosis of hypothyroidism, liver
disease, Cushing's disease, and diabetes mellitus.

o CI (chloride) is an electrolyte often lost with vomiting and Addison's disease.
Elevations often indicate dehydration.

o Cortisol is a hormone that is measured in tests for Cushing's disease (the
low‑dose dexamethasone suppression test) and Addison's disease (ACTH
stimulation test).

o CREA (creatinine) reveals kidney function. This test helps distinguish between
kidney and non-kidney causes of elevated BUN.

o GGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) is an enzyme that indicates liver disease or
corticosteroid excess.

o GLOB (globulin) is a blood protein that often increases with chronic
inflammation and certain disease states.

o GLU (glucose) Is a blood sugar. Elevated levels may indicate diabetes mellitus.
Low levels can cause collapse, seizures, or coma.

o K (potassium) is an electrolyte lost with vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive
urination. Increased levels may indicate kidney fail­ure, Addison's disease,
dehydration, and urethral obstruction. High levels can lead to cardiac arrest.

o LIP (lipase) is an enzyme that may indicate pancreatitis.

o Na (sodium) is an electrolyte lost with vomiting, diarrhea, and kidney and
Addison's disease. This test helps indicate hydration status.

o PHOS (phosphorus) elevations are often associated with kidney disease,
hyperthyroidism, and bleeding disorders.

o TBIL (total bilirubin) elevations may indicate liver or hemolytic disease. This
test helps identify bile duct problems and certain types of anemia.

o TP (total protein) indicates hydration status and provides additional information
about the liver, kidneys, and infectious diseases.

o T4 (thyroxine) is a thyroid hormone. Decreased levels often signal
hypothyroidism in dogs, while high levels Indicate hyperthyroidism in cats.

5. Parasite Exams


A sample of stool is examined to look for hookworms, whipworms, roundworms,
coccidia, Girardia and other intestinal parasites.


Serum is tested for the presence of heartworm on an annual basis. Whole blood
can also be examined in anemic animals for other parasites, such as Babesia,
Hemobartonella, or Cytauxzoon.
I have also added websites that I find useful relating
to breeding and raising healthy Biewers.
DDC Veterinary: DNA Services for Animals- Offers DNA tests for canine and equine species. Services include parentage, DNA genotyping, DNA banking, disease screening, and coat color prediction.